Chống buôn tín đồ (Human Trafficking - C-TPAT)
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In 2000, Congress signed the Victims of Trafficking và Violence Protection Act inkhổng lồ law, representing the beginning of a large-scale, coordinated effort by the United States government to fight human trafficking.quý khách hàng vẫn xem: Trafficking là gì
Twenty years later, human trafficking still remains prevalent. According torecent figures available (Source:Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour & Forced Marriage, Geneva, September 2017):
At any given time in 2016, an estimated 40.3 million people are in modern slavery, including 24.9 million in forced labor and 15.4 million in forced marriage.
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It means there are 5.4 victims of modern slavery for every 1,000 people in the world.
1 in 4 victims of modern slavery are children.
Out of the 24.9 million people trapped in forced labor, 16 million people are exploited in the private sector such as domestic work, construction or agriculture; 4.8 million persons in forced sexual exploitation, and 4 million persons in forced labor imposed by state authorities.
Women và girls are disproportionately affected by forced labor, accounting for 99% of victims in the commercial sex industry, and 58% in other sectors
What Is Human Trafficking?
Although the legal definition of human trafficking is complex, the simple meaning of it is not. It occurs when a person is induced by force, fraud or coercion to:
Work under the total or near-total control of another person or organization (slavery or involuntary servitude)
Forced lớn pay off a loan by working instead of paying money, for an agreed-upon or unclear period of time (debt bondage) or even without an agreement as lớn the timeframe (peonage)
Perform a sex act for money or anything of value (if under 18, force, fraud or coercion is not required)
According to lớn U.S. Immigration & Customs Enforcement, although many people think of the sex trade when they think of human trafficking, this crime also occurs in such labor situations as:
Labor in a prison-like factory
Migrant agricultural work.
In addition, with respect khổng lồ labor situations, the initial agreement lớn travel or lớn perkhung work does not mean that the employer is later allowed to restrict a victim's freedom or use force or threats lớn obtain repayment.
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"Force, Fraud or Coercion"
These terms include any situation where an individual is forced lớn vì chưng something against their will, or where they are tricked into lớn doing something by someone who is lying to lớn them or suppressing the truth. According to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement,forcecan be active and physical or indirect and psychological (including threats). This term includes:
Coercionrefers lớn behaviors including:
Threats of harm or physical restraint
Trying khổng lồ get a person to believe that if they don't vị something, it will result in serious harm or physical restraint of themselves or someone else
The abuse (or threatened abuse) of law or the legal process
Fraudrefers to intentionally distorting the truth in order to lớn get someone else (who relies on that version of the truth) to lớn surrender a legal right or give sầu up something valuable that belongs lớn them.
A Complex Crime
Human trafficking entangles victims in a nearly impenetrable website, for a number of reasons:
The victyên may not realize that he or she is imprisoned, because coercion is psychological (it may not be physical)
Victims are typically impoverished & financially dependent on their captors
Often the crime takes place in plain view-e.g. in a restaurant, worksite, or private home-and is not immediately apparent to observers
Victims can be exploited for labor, sex, or both, particularly in private homes.
Signs of Human Trafficking
It is sometimes said that human trafficking is an "invisible crime," because its signs are not always obvious khổng lồ the untrained eye. However, there are some indicators that may serve as a tip-off, particularly when they appear in combination. Suspect that something is amiss if an individual:
Lacks control of identification documents or travel documents
Lives & works in the same place
Lacks freedom of movement
Seems to be restricted from socializing, attending religious services or contacting family
Seems to have been deprived of basic life necessities, such as food, water, sleep or medical care
Shows signs of having been abused or physically assaulted. Such signs range from the more obvious, such as broken bones, to lớn the more subtle, such as branding or tattooing
Seems submissive or fearful in the presence of others
Seems not khổng lồ control his or her schedule
Seems to lachồng concrete short- or long-term plans
Seems to lớn lack knowledge about the place where he or she lives
Appears khổng lồ date much older, abusive sầu or controlling men.
A Government Partnership
Four executive agencies of the U.S. government, along with state và local law enforcement organizations, work together as well as with nonprofit organizations khổng lồ combat human trafficking. The primary U.S. executive sầu agencies include:
Department of Homeland Security , of which U.S. Customs and Border Protection , U.S. Immigration & Customs Enforcement , and U.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services are component agencies
Department of Justice
Department of Health và Human Services
No Te Enganes
DHS Activities Combating Human Trafficking
TheDepartment of Homelvà Security& its component agencies have sầu been raising awareness for the past several years about the issue of human trafficking. Most recently, DHS announced an aggressive sầu effort khổng lồ protect victims và prosedễ thương traffickers, in line with the TVPA's focus on three key goals:
Currently, the Department is focusing on the first of the three goals above, by sponsoring heavily advertised public awareness campaigns about human trafficking created by CBP and its sister agency, Immigration & Customs Enforcement và making potential victims aware that they are in danger, và that the government offers resources lớn provide them with asylum & other forms of assistance.
Actions CBPhường. Is Taking To Enforce TVPA
With more than 42,000 frontline CBP.. officers & Border Patrol agents protecting nearly 7,000 miles of land border và 328 ports of entry—including official crossings by land, air, and sea—CBP is uniquely situated lớn deter & disrupt human trafficking. Currently, the agency is:
Identifyingpotential victims as they seek to lớn enter the U.S.
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Directingpotential victims to lớn U.S. agencies providing legal protection and assistance, through printed materials with educational information and telephone numbers where help can be obtained
Raising awareness amuốn the American publicof this often-invisible, yet pervasive sầu crime, through public service announcements
Raising awareness internationallyaao ước potential border-crossersbefore they fall into lớn the hands of traffickers, in countries where this crime is pervasive sầu & where border smuggling frequently involves human trafficking
Helping the public to reportsuspected cases of human trafficking
Identifying imports produced by forced labor và stopping themfrom entering the country
Dedicating an officespecifically lớn combating human trafficking
Partnering with other law enforcement agenciesto lớn identify và tư vấn victims, such as by educating legal counsel lớn detect signs of victimization, to lớn disrupt the crime itself and to lớn prosecute human traffickers
Partneringwith non-governmental organizations to provide information about government assistance lớn potential victims
Training is Key
Within the agency, CBP has implemented comprehensive training for its frontline personnel with more forthcoming. Through its local field and sector offices, CBPhường is instructing them lớn recognize potential instances of human trafficking và khổng lồ take appropriate actions when encountering human trafficking victims.
Human trafficking is a heinous international crime, and as the State Department notes in its most recent report on the subject, it is unfortunately flourishing due to current global financial issues. With global demvà for labor decreasing, impoverished workers find themselves taking greater risks than before in order to lớn survive. The result: "a recipe for greater forced labor of migrant workers & commercial sexual exploitation of women in prostitution."
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